Here are some of the more traditional options for lighting in the Film and TV industry. led 燈 technology is entering the market as an option that is more energy efficient, allows for variable colour temperatures and is more resilient to mishandling. LED lighting units vary with manufacturer and model but the principles are the same.
Red Head Lights
Red Head is a generic term to describe a range of lights that share two main qualities:
1. They can adjust between spot and flood.
2. They typically use an 800W tungsten halogen globe.
The example pictured here is an Arrilite 800w open-face focusing tungsten floodlight. The beam is focused using the yellow control at the back — this adjusts the reflector rather than the lamp, which should give the lamp a longer life because it is not being moved.
Blondes are typically larger, brighter redheads. Power grading can be 1000 to 2000 watts, even though the item familiarly consults to a 2000w open-face part.
HMI (Hydrargyrum Medium-Arc Iodide) may be a sort of light which uses an arc light rather than an incandescent bulb to supply light.
HMI lights require a ballast, an electronic (or magnetic) device which provides the ignition pulse and regulates the arc. Being 2 to five times as efficient more efficient than incandescent lamps, hmis use less power to supply an equivalent light and run cooler. They also are balanced to 5600K, an equivalent as daylight. This makes daylight shooting easier, because you don’t got to use gels.
Halogen Work Lamp
Halogen work lamps can be purchased from most hardware stores. They are a cheap alternative to specifically designed industry lights, however are often used with industry equipment for additional effects. They can be used as primary lights, but compensations must be made as you would need to use more lights and will have issues with multiple shadows.
When in doubt, you can use lots of these to just flood the set with light. The standard ‘ideal’ lighting arrangement is three point lighting. It begins with a Key Light which is the hardest light and brightest on the subject.
The second light is the Fill Light, which is a soft light that is used to ‘fill’ the strong shadows cast by the Key Light and to raise the overall light levels.
The third light is the Back Light which functions to visually separate the subject from the background by creating a subtle glow around the edges of the subject.
A better image can be achieved when the led lighting levels of the background can be controlled by background lights. By controlling how everything in the scene is lit, the Director of Photography can create an image that fully utilises all the fundamental design elements and principles to create an image that achieves the desired effect on the viewer. One of the key effects is creating the illusion of depth, which helps focuses and direct the audience’s attention, creating a more engaging and interesting image.
When shooting indoors and there is natural light on the set, you have three options.
– Block out the light with whatever is available, practical and safe.
– Overpower the light with artificial light.
– Integrate the natural light into the scene, keeping in mind colour temperature.
These options are listed in no particular order. The decision is usually made based on practicality of the situation.
Light can be bounced off a surface to function as a Fill or Back light. A similar result can be achieved by using a reflector or just polystyrene board. If you can’t place a fill light effectively in the scene because it will be in-frame or there is no electricity, consider using a reflector to bounce the ambient light back on the subject or positioning a light so that it will throw light on the ceiling and reflect down on the subject.
If you’re filming outdoors, during the day, then the sun will most likely be the brightest, hardest light available. Without a significant lighting rig, the sun will become by default, your Key Light or your Back Light and all other lighting must work around it. When filming outdoors, all the lights and cameras should be balanced to daylight.
Reflectors are very useful for outdoors shooting as substitutes for Fill Lights.
A single light can be used for two purposes. In an interview situation with two subjects, diffuser can be cleverly used on only half of the light so that if can perform as both the Key Light on one of the subjects and the Fill Light on the other. Depending on placement of the subjects, Back Lights can double as Key Lights and Key Lights can double as Background lights.
The introduction stated that:
“The best images are made when everything is brightly lit with good use of lighting and shadow. If this isn’t possibly, make sure that everything is equally bright. This second option is often referred to as flooding the set with light or ‘flat’ lighting. Lastly, the poorest images are captured when no attention is paid to the lighting.”
Shadows add depth and emotion to the image. These are two elements that make a more engaging image.
It is, in order of preference, that:
1. Shadows are well used
2. Shadows are eliminated
3. Shadows are badly used
Audiences are more accepting of having no shadows in a scene than having bad shadows.
Photography and Film, like painting, is set in a two dimensional medium. Creating the illusion of depth always adds a wow factor and can be used to direct the viewers’ attention.